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1. ​Immunity Promotes Virulence Evolution in a Malaria Model

Farrell, B. Science Fenner, F. Biological control, as exemplified by smallpox eradication and myxomatosis. Kruger, O. The evolution of egg size in the brood parasitic cuckoos. Behavioral Ecology Mackinnon, M. Immunity promotes virulence evolution in a malaria model.

Immune variation and differences in terms of sex and age

PLOS Biology 2: May, R. Parasite-host coevolution. Pages in D. Futuyma and M.

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Slatkin eds. Sinauer, Sunderland, Mass. Messenger, S. Molineux and J. Virulence evolution in a virus obeys a trade-off. Saunders, G. Cooke, K. McColl, R. Shine, and T. Bull, J. Molineux, and W. Selection of benevolence in a host-parasite system. Davies, N. Coevolution of the cuckoo and its hosts.

Host-parasite coevolution

Scientific American January : An experimental study of co-evolution between the cuckoo, Cuculus canorus, and its hosts. Host egg discrimination.

The Journal of Animal Ecology An experimental study of co-evolution between the cuckoo, Cuculus canorus , and its hosts. Dawkins, R. Arms races between and within species. Ewald, P. Evolution of infectious disease.


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  • Background.
  • Virulence in malaria: an evolutionary viewpoint..
  • Immunity Promotes Virulence Evolution in a Malaria Model.?

Oxford University Press, Oxford, U. The evolution of virulence. Scientific American April : Farrell, B.

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Science Fenner, F. Biological control, as exemplified by smallpox eradication and myxomatosis. Kruger, O. The evolution of egg size in the brood parasitic cuckoos.


  • 2. ​Imperfect vaccination: some epidemiological and evolutionary consequences!
  • Genetic variations and risk of disease?
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  • The factors that most affect our immune system - News from the Institut Pasteur.
  • Pathogen Evolution and Imperfect Vaccines - DR. PAUL APPROVED?

From our evolutionary perspective, this is because virulence is positively associated with parasite transmission rate. Natural selection therefore drives virulence upwards, but only to the point where the cost to transmission caused by host death begins to outweigh the transmission benefits.

Dendritic cell-dependent inhibition of malaria immunity

In this review, we summarize data from the laboratory rodent malaria model, Plasmodium chabaudi, and field data on the human malaria parasite, P. The data from both species show strong positive correlations between asexual multiplication, transmission rate, infection length, morbidity and mortality, and therefore support the underlying assumptions of the hypothesis.

Immunity Promotes Virulence Evolution in a Malaria Model

Moreover, the P. This evolutionary explanation of virulence appears to accord well with the clinical and molecular explanations of pathogenesis that involve cytoadherence, red cell invasion and immune evasion, although direct evidence of the fitness advantages of these mechanisms is scarce. One implication of this evolutionary view of virulence is that parasite populations are expected to evolve new levels of virulence in response to medical interventions such as vaccines and drugs. Paul Approved. This website and all information and links are educational and not intended to diagnose or treat.