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Immune variation and differences in terms of sex and age
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Oxford University Press, Oxford, U. The evolution of virulence. Scientific American April : Farrell, B.
Science Fenner, F. Biological control, as exemplified by smallpox eradication and myxomatosis. Kruger, O. The evolution of egg size in the brood parasitic cuckoos.
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From our evolutionary perspective, this is because virulence is positively associated with parasite transmission rate. Natural selection therefore drives virulence upwards, but only to the point where the cost to transmission caused by host death begins to outweigh the transmission benefits.
In this review, we summarize data from the laboratory rodent malaria model, Plasmodium chabaudi, and field data on the human malaria parasite, P. The data from both species show strong positive correlations between asexual multiplication, transmission rate, infection length, morbidity and mortality, and therefore support the underlying assumptions of the hypothesis.
Immunity Promotes Virulence Evolution in a Malaria Model
Moreover, the P. This evolutionary explanation of virulence appears to accord well with the clinical and molecular explanations of pathogenesis that involve cytoadherence, red cell invasion and immune evasion, although direct evidence of the fitness advantages of these mechanisms is scarce. One implication of this evolutionary view of virulence is that parasite populations are expected to evolve new levels of virulence in response to medical interventions such as vaccines and drugs. Paul Approved. This website and all information and links are educational and not intended to diagnose or treat.