Volume 11 and Volume 12 this volume are expected to be published in Previously, Dr.
The Law on Slippery Surfaces
Currently, he is teaching and consulting in the areas of adhesion science and technology and in surface contamination and cleaning. He is the founding editor of the Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology and is editor of 85 books, many of them dealing with surface contamination and cleaning. In , the Kash Mittal Award was inaugurated for his extensive efforts and significant contributions to the field of colloid and interface chemistry.
Among his numerous awards, Dr. We are always looking for ways to improve customer experience on Elsevier.
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Hardcover ISBN: Imprint: William Andrew. He is the founding editor of the Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology and is editor of 85 books, many of them dealing with surface contamination and cleaning. In , the Kash Mittal Award was inaugurated for his extensive efforts and significant contributions to the field of colloid and interface chemistry.
Among his numerous awards, Dr. It will stimulate readers to review cleaning practices in their own organisations and provide ideas as to how these might be improved. We are always looking for ways to improve customer experience on Elsevier. We would like to ask you for a moment of your time to fill in a short questionnaire, at the end of your visit.
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Editors: Rajiv Kohli Kashmiri L. Hardcover ISBN: Imprint: William Andrew. Published Date: 16th November Take the sample on a day when it can be mailed to arrive at the laboratory Monday through Wednesday. Avoid weekends or holidays which may delay the mail or lab analysis. Although field test kits are available for measuring nitrate-nitrogen concentration, they are not as accurate as laboratory procedures.
Results from field test kits can be affected by the presence of certain chemicals and by temperature variation. Laboratory testing should be used to assure the most accurate and reliable results. Most laboratories report nitrate as nitrate-nitrogen NO 3 -N , which is the amount of nitrogen in the nitrate form. Some labs may report total nitrate NO 3 -. Use the following to compare the two reporting systems:. The U. Public water systems are legally defined as those that have 15 or more connections or regularly serve more than 25 persons.
Questions and Answers on Current Good Manufacturing Practices—Equipment | FDA
EPA requires regular testing of public water systems for nitrate-nitrogen and nitrite-nitrogen and these test results are available from the supplier. If a test indicates that the nitrate-nitrogen concentration of the delivered water exceeds the standard, the public must be notified and treatment must be performed. If excessive nitrate-nitrogen is present in your water supply, you have two basic choices: obtain an alternate water supply or use some type of treatment to remove the nitrate-nitrogen.
The need for an alternate water supply or nitrate-nitrogen removal should be established before making an investment in treatment equipment or an alternate supply. Base the decision on a nitrate analysis by a reputable laboratory, and after consulting with your physician to help you evaluate the level of risk or other professionals. It may be possible to obtain a satisfactory alternate water supply by drilling a new well in a different location or a deeper well in a different aquifer, especially if the nitrate contamination is from a point source such as livestock or human wastes.
If the water supply with high nitrate is coming from a shallow aquifer, there may be an uncontaminated, deeper aquifer protected by a clay layer or other aquitard that prevents the downward movement of the nitrate-contaminated water. A new well should be constructed so surface contamination cannot enter the well and the well should be cement grouted.
Ideally, the new well should meet the standards for a community water supply. It should be located away from any potential sources of contamination, such as septic systems, feedlots, or underground fuel tanks. The Division of Water Supply in the Department of Environmental Protection may be able to assist you in determining the cause of water contamination and make recommendations to correct the problem. In addition, the Water Research Center can provide general information on this topic.
Another alternate source of water is bottled water that can be purchased in stores or direct from bottling companies. This alternative especially might be considered when the primary concern is water for infant food and drinking. The purchased water must be handled and stored in a manner to prevent contamination. Nitrate can be removed from drinking water by three methods: distillation, reverse osmosis, and ion exchange.
Home treatment equipment using these processes are available from several manufacturers. Carbon adsorption filters, mechanical filters of various types, and standard water softeners do not remove nitrate-nitrogen. The distillation process involves heating the water to boiling and collecting and condensing the steam by means of a metal coil.
Nearly percent of the nitrate-nitrogen can be removed by this process. Merely boiling water will increase rather than decrease the nitrate concentration. Water without nitrate is obtained by collecting and condensing the steam generated as the water boils. In the reverse osmosis process, pressure is applied to water to force it through a semi-permeable membrane. As the water passes through, the membrane filters out most of the impurities. According to manufacturers' literature, from 85 to 95 percent of the nitrate can be removed with reverse osmosis.
Actual removal rates may vary, depending on the initial quality of the water, the system pressure, and water temperature.
- Chapter 2 - WATER QUALITY MONITORING, STANDARDS AND TREATMENT;
- Assessing surface purity in clean process environments.
- 1. Introduction?
Ion exchange for nitrate-nitrogen removal operates on the same principle as a household water softener.